Tag Archives: init

git: general commands

git init // initialize new repository
git remote add origin ssh://username@domain.tld/path/to/git/project.git
git add . //add all files in this folder to repository
git commit -a -m 'commit description' // make commit
git checkout -b new // create new branch
git checkout master // use master branch
git push // send changes to repository
git pull // take changes from repository
git reset --hard COMMIT // reset to COMMIT
git reset --hard HEAD // reset to last commit
git reset --hard HEAD-1 // reset to one from last
git merge new // if you in another branch will merge change in new for current branch
git reflog // list of last commits
git log // git logs
git show COMMIT // list of change in commit
git clone ssh://username@domain.tld/path/to/git/repository

UpStart init

UpStart init — based on events of replacing / sbin / init daemon which monitors the running tasks and services during boot, stopping them during shutdown and monitor them during operation.

Initially this system was designed for Ubuntu, but it can be used in any Linux-system, as a replacement for the classic System V — init.

What has already been implemented:

  • Tasks and Services are started and stopped by events.
  • Events generated by the tasks and services are started and stopped.
  • Events can be received from other system processes.
  • Services may be terminated if the dead «by accident».
  • Monitoring and restarting daemons, regardless of the parent process.
  • Interaction with the init daemon via D-Bus

initctl — Management Utility

--system // interaction with the init is usually done through a socket. This option forces to communicate through the D-bus

--no-wait // used to start stop restart emit commands usually waits for the init process is finished, then he would not be expected.

--quiet // disables everything except errors.

start JOB // start of the process, for example atd.

stop JOB // stop of the process

status JOB // receive this status daemon (stopped || run && pid)

list // get a list of all known processes and displays information about them on the screen

reload-configuration // make init-daemon to reload its configuration.

init levels

0 – halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
1 – Single user mode
2 – Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking)
3 – Full multiuser mode
4 – unused
5 – X11
6 – reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)